Wound healing is a complex natural process regulated by extracellular signaling pathways involving cytokines, growth factors and membrane receptors, although chronic wounds, such as diabetic and venous ulcers, often require clinical intervention. Chronic wounds pose a significant burden to the US healthcare system, affecting around 5 million patients and costing an estimated US$25 billion annually. Current treatments include electrophysical stimulation, bioengineered therapy based on recombinant growth factors, and application of platelet rich plasma and stem cell-based therapy.
A more multifaceted approach that can trigger an efficient signaling response to achieve therapeutic benefits is the use of placental membranes, which combine demonstrated high clinical efficacy with lower cost of treatment. Amniotic membranes (AM) are one of the first natural biomaterials to be used for wound healing especially in ophthalmic reconstructive surgeries. The fetal origin of the AM makes it immune-privileged, providing a perfect scaffold for enhanced wound repair, along with significantly reduced inflammatory pain and fibrogenic scarring. AM is a rich source for biologically active factors like cytokines, which if processed carefully remain bound to the extracellular matrix even after decellularization and exposure to various drying techniques, and play a vital role in wound healing and tissue regeneration.
In research published in Regenerative Medicine, a team from Burst Biologics (ID, USA) studied how cytokines and growth factors within a uniquely folded dehydrated binate amniotic membrane positively affected the biological efficacy of the membrane in wound healing.
Sane MS, Misra N, Quintanar NM, Jones CD, Mustafi SB. Biochemical characterization of pure dehydrated binate amniotic membrane: role of cytokines in the spotlight. Regen. Med. (2018)(ePub ahead of print)